淘宝网百分之六十三是假冒伪劣产品,国家工商总局与马云和谈

阿里巴巴董事长马云在美国总统川普当选之后曾经当面向川普承诺,阿里巴巴将帮助美国中小企业,为美国创造一百万个工作机会。但是最近纽约时报发表深度报道,介绍了阿里巴巴下属的淘宝网假货泛滥,将美国一些中小企业逼上绝路的情况。随着阿里巴巴的全球业务不断扩大,但是其“假货天堂”的恶名也不断流传,并在多国受到法律挑战。阿里巴巴是否像自己所说的那样致力于清除假货?阿里巴巴辩称自己只是中国“假货经济”的替罪羊,这个说法是否具有说服力?

参加讨论的嘉宾是:网上政论节目“文昭谈古论今”的主讲人文昭先生;普林斯顿社会学博士,政治与经济学者程晓农先生;政论作家,时局分析人士陈破空先生。

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程晓农说,阿里巴巴的主要业务在中国市场,其关联公司之一便是著名的假货销售地淘宝网。2014年中国工商总局抽查网上销售商品的结果是,淘宝网的假货率为63%。中国的企业靠造假发财,是公开的秘密。这种造假从80年代后期就开始了,一开始是外企的中国员工晚上加班“打黑工”,白班的产品外销,夜班的产品则作为盗版品偷偷私卖;90年代进一步发展为盗窃外企的技术图纸,开设“影子工厂”生产仿冒产品;再后来变成出国盗取产品设计,许多企业每年派专人到全球各地参加展销会,直接拍照、然后仿制,或者邮购样品、上互联网查看,设法剽窃产品设计;更高级的盗版者干脆查阅外国商品的设计专利,然后由工程师小组研制仿冒,批量生产。中国的仿冒文化不仅是企业行为,也是政府行为,中国不少军用品就是仿冒的,最近俄国对中国出口最新战斗机,便特地采取了防止仿冒措施。去年经济合作发展组织(OECD)发布了一份关于仿冒品和假货贸易的报告,该报告根据2010年到2013年全球海关查扣商品的详细资料,发现中国是全球第一大假冒商品流出国,全世界63.2%的假货是从中国流出的。该报告估计,2013年全球因为假货和盗版而造成的贸易损失高达4,610亿美元,约占全球国内生产总值的2.5%。根据此报告的数据,2013年中国的假货给世界各国所造成的损失达到2,900亿美元。

程晓农说,造假在中国流行了30年,与知识产权一直得不到保护有极大关系。首先,外商在中国申请专利权,通常要花3年时间,在此期间它的知识产权如果被侵犯,便求告无门。其次,直到2014年8月31日全国人大常委会才决定在北京、上海、广州设立知识产权法院,然后在这三个城市陆续建立了专门处理知识产权案件的专门法院;此前,中国发生的侵犯知识产权案件只能由经济审判庭受理,而懂得专利法的专门法官以及能提供专业技术咨询的知识产权专家人数很少,受理案件更少。

陈破空表示,当代中国资本家马云的发家史,正符合马克思对原始资本主义的定义:“资本主义来到人间,从头到脚,每个毛孔都滴着血和肮脏的东西。”千百个红色资本家、千百个中国企业,都是如此。马云求见川普,声称要帮助美国小企业,然而,其所作所为,从来就是坑害美国小企业。2017年2月,美国“知识产权和盗版委员会”发布了一个报告指出,美国海关查获的假货百分之八十七来自中国,每年为美国造成两千亿到六千亿美元的损失。加上知识产权盗版每年二千亿到四千亿美元的损失,美国每年从中国假货和知识产权侵权的损失最高可能达到上万亿美元。马云所谓“为美国创造100万个工作岗位”,就连还美国的债都还不够,根本谈不上创造与贡献。

陈破空说,马云和阿里巴巴贩卖山寨版、假货,从小规模到大规模,从中国到世界,从祸害中国人民,发展到祸害世界人民,从一个侧面证明,中国造假文化冲出亚洲,走向世界,这是另类“中国威胁”,准确而言,是中共威胁,是中国人民和世界人民面临的共同威胁。假冒伪劣商品泛滥,源于中共的造假文化,这是中共党文化的一部分。上行下效,从政治领域,发展到社会和经济领域。如果不能建立起具有监督功能的政治体制和社会体制,包括言论自由、新闻自由和网络自由,造假文化就无法根治。

文昭表示,随着阿里巴巴在美国上市,其假货对美国人影响越来越直接,而且影响范围还涉及全球。2001,美国贸易代表办公室把阿里巴巴列入恶市场黑名单,后来,阿里巴巴进行了游说,2012年被拿下黑名单,但是后来仍然没有达到美国社会的预期,2016又被列上名单。有趣的是,2016年4月,阿里巴巴加入国际反假货盟,但是遭到抵制,5月被停止会员资格。马云见川普承诺在美国创造百万就业机会,虽然扮演着中共秘使的角色,但同时也想恢复投资人的信心。从企业来说,中小企业更容易受到假货侵害,因为它们的创新往往是在软件上,如设计等,很容易被盗版。加上知名度低,要给自己维权可以说是举步维艰,它们需要政府、行业协会和媒体等联合出手帮助。

文昭表示,造假流行的直接原因是,商家不需要研发过程而迅速获利。但其扩展的重要原因是因为这种做法不受惩罚。造假在地方提供就业,提升GDP以及给官员贿赂等方面发挥重大作用,所以被政府庇护。中国造假文化的源头是,中国最大的造假获利者半个世纪以来高坐庙堂,导致模仿者络绎不绝。这个造假者就是中国共产党,它时时制造假新闻假数据假承诺,人大、选举、宪法自由等都是假的。所谓窃钩者诛,窃国者为诸侯就是这个道理,中国的公共社会领域都建立在造假的基础之上。

更多精彩内容,请收看2017年3月24日的《焦点对话》完整版

附: 《焦点对话》节目信箱是jiaodianduihua@gmail.com。欢迎提前就讨论话题提出建议或者发表评论,我们会挑选一些精彩的问题和评论用在节目中。

另外,焦点对话视频上有美国之音中文网二维码,只要使用手机或平板电脑上的二维码识别程序扫描图片,您就可翻墙浏览美国之音中文网,欢迎使用。

YouTube链接:焦点对话: 阿里巴巴假货泛滥,马云害惨美国企业?
《焦点对话》YouTube播放列表:http://bit.ly/JiaoDian-youtube

图片集:会见川普等政要和名人,国际交流中的马云(21图)

60 YouTube channels that will make you smarter

Time is finite. Social media and Netflix can all too easily swallow our precious hours. So why not put them to better use on YouTube? Beyond the music, virals and gaming videos, YouTube has many great channels that can teach anyone practically anything.

Here are the sharpest brains. Press play and become smarter!

Spark your curiosity

Vsauce — Amazing answers to questions about our world

In a Nutshell — Animations that make learning beautiful

C. G. P. Grey — Entertaining explanations of politics, geography and culture

Crash Course — Bite-sized science and learning across many subjects

Scishow— Indispensable science news, history and concepts

HowStuffWorks — Your daily curiosity dose that explains the world

Brit Lab — Smart-ass ammunition that’s guaranteed to astound

THNKR — People, stories and ideas that change perspectives

Experiment with the sciences

MinutePhysics— Simple explanations of physics and other sciences

MinuteEarth — Science and stories about our awesome planet

Veritasium — Science and engineering videos by Derek Muller

Numberphile — Maths Mecca that sums up all things numerical

SmarterEveryDay — Exploring the world of science with Destin Sandlin

Periodic Videos — Videos of each element and other chemistry stuff

Sixty Symbols — A physics and astronomy cornucopia of cool

AsapSCIENCE — Weekly doses of fun and intriguing science clips

It’s Okay To Be Smart — We agree!

PatrickJMT — Straight-to-the-point maths know-how

Bozeman Science — A popular high school teacher explains science

Connect with technology

Computerphile — An array of computing and tech videos

The Game Theorists — Over-analysing video games

Extra Credits — Video game design to start your developer career

The New Boston — Tons of great web development tutorials

Expand your mind

The School of Life — Ideas for life through many lenses

BrainCraft — Weekly videos on psychology and neuroscience

Wisecrack — Learn your ass off with witty sketches

PBS Idea Channel — A cultural critique of pop, technology and art

Philosophy Tube — Oliver Lennard “gives away a philosophy degree”

Inspire your creativity

Mark Crilley— How-to-draw videos on almost every topic you can imagine

Draw With Jazza— Tutorials on all forms of visual expression

JustinGuitar— Guitar courses for various styles, techniques and abilities

HDpiano — Learn to play the piano with easy to follow tutorials

Every Frame a Painting — Top-notch and truly fascinating analysis of film

Photo Exposed — Photography tips, techniques and tutorials

The Art Assignment— Artist talks and challenging assignments for yourself

Film Riot— A how-to trip through all aspects of film making

Avoid burning your house down

Grant Thompson — Caution advised with these experiments and life hacks

Crazy Russian Hacker — The daddy of all science experiment channels

Get closer to nature

Earth Unplugged— BBC-produced channel about the natural world

BBC Earth— Jump in and meet your planet

The Brain Scoop — A private tour of The Field Museum in Chicago

Roll with the big boys

ouLearn — The Open University’s rich and engaging learning channel

The RSA — The Royal Society of Arts sets new standards in its field

TED Talks— No list would be complete without TED’s main collection

TED-Ed — Carefully curated and crafted educational videos and animations

Smithsonian — The mighty institution explores the grand questions

Big Think — Exploring big ideas that define knowledge in the 21st century

The Royal Institution — Films and lectures about the natural world

Gresham College — Liberally delivering knowledge through top lectures

Access the archives

British Pathé — Famous newsreels shown within carefully chosen topics

ITN Source— One of the largest historic collections of news footage

AP Archive— The Associated Press, the world’s largest and oldest agency

Nurture the youngsters

Crash Course Kids —For 5th grade scientists, engineers and astronomers

SciShow Kids— Experiments, experts and answers for kids aged 8 to 88

HooplaKidz— Arts and crafts for little ’uns

Dose up on medicine

Sexplanations — Honest answers about sexuality by Lindsey Doe

Healthcare Triage — Answering questions about medicine and healthcare

Kenhub — An engaging and different way to learn human anatomy

Enjoy the unusual

Vi Hart — A “recreational mathemusician” like no other

ElectroBOOM — Successfully discovering the craziness in engineering


Closing words

These channels have been chosen based on a range of factors, such as production value, impact, quality, variety and quantity. In many categories, great channels and incredible niches have been left out, but such is the burden of any editor. See the entire list of 134 nominees here.

If you find this list helpful, please recommend it so that others can benefit!


 Author:

The 43 best websites for learning something new

魏京生看习近平执政五年

一年一度的中国“两会”正在北京召开。本次全国人大和全国政协会议是习近平执政五年的收官之作,也是确定习政府下届任期和中共十九大的铺垫之举,海内外媒体和分析人士高度关注。西方分析称,习近平第一个任期的“成绩单”凸显出中国“体量庞大但浪费严重的经济”必须改革的现实; 习近平在国际舞台上的大胆誓言与五年来的业绩不相符合;中国特色的权钱结合导致的贫富分化正在加速前行。那么,习近平当政五年来,中国的政治生态和社会环境究竟是进还是退?习政权面临的最大风险来自何处?习近平誓言建立的“法制社会”究竟在哪里?

《VOA连线》关注焦点:
1) 709家属李文足遭死亡威胁,事关公开信? (李文足,709家属、王全璋妻子)
2) 美韩开始部署萨德,开启东北亚巨大不确定性的时代? (邓聿文,朝鲜问题学者)
3) 北京两会见闻 王毅谈美中关系及朝鲜问题 (叶兵,美国之音驻北京记者)

3月8日(周三)【时事大家谈】魏京生看习近平执政五年
主持:许波
嘉宾:中国民运海外联席会议主席魏京生

重塑现代教育的三大浪潮

随着2016年美国总统大选的结束以及“后真相时代”的兴起,是时候围绕教育领域创新开展一番讨论了。 教育领域面临的最大挑战是什么,又有哪些解决方案正在路上? 谁来负责重塑有缺陷的教育制度? 虽然教育制度的相关问题来自多个维度,但有件事情我们是能够确信的:要想改变社会,就得从教育后代开始做起,而这正是现在所发生的事情。

如果你环视整个教育行业,显然许多组织已经建立起了全新且有效的“替代系统”,强调可扩展性,影响力与效率。

重塑现代教育的“三大浪潮”是:数字化,国际化和个性化。
数字化 在教育领域,“大规模开放式在线课程”(MOOCs)的兴起是一大热门话题。 数字时代为信息访问带来了前所未有的便利度。所有年龄段的学生都能获得比以往任何时候更多的信息,还能获得世界上最优质的教育资源(只要那些最优秀的教育者愿意在网上发布他们的课程)。

Khan Academy, EdX和 Coursera都是正在快速扩张的教育组织,在优质教育内容的支持下,它们在新兴市场大举竞争,但其营收却不是非常稳定。 这些组织所集合了来自不同背景的顶级教师及教授,为学生提供教学大纲、家庭作业、学习聊天组,以及即时视频讨论。

学生不必按照固定的时间表完成课程。 如果学生发现自己晚上的学习效率更好,那么他们都能这样做。 如果学生需要重复学习的话,他们能以10秒为单位随意回滚视频,直到完全理解老师说了什么说。 这种学习模式也带来了缺点,过多的灵活性让学生很难获得激励去完成学习任务。 更重要的是,在学习过程中,触觉对于激励心智发展来说几乎是不可替代的。
国际化 最迷人的教育改革运动往往不在传统组织中发生。 在高等教育方面,凯基的Minerva学校引发了一场教育风暴,今年一年内获得了超过16,000份入学申请,而该学校拥有306个教学点。

每年,Minerva学校的学生都会前往一个新的国家,在世界各地不同的城市背景下完成他们的本科课程:伊斯坦布尔,伦敦,旧金山,柏林,首尔,班加罗尔。 大学教育的“去中心化”直到最近才得以实现。 而“间隔年”则是另一个快速增长的教育创新空间。 摆脱了K-12或高等教育体系的限制,学生们能够利用“间隔年”的时间来重塑自己的生活,探索能够真正激励、挑战并鼓舞他们的事情。

剑桥的“冬季全球技能”计划,通过在学生们的“间隔年”旅行过程中教授给他们现实世界技能,为应对现实世界的挑战做好准备。 参加这一计划的学生每周都会前往一个新的地方,从海洋保护,到运营餐馆,再到拍摄纪录片,并从这些经历中学习.
个性化 那些对实体教育创新感兴趣的人,会发现当前最高素质学校中出现的“教育个性化”浪潮相当鼓舞人心。

圣地亚哥的“高科技高”计划开设了一家基于抽签制度的公立特许学校, 该学校99%的毕业生都能进入大学。 作为一个几乎没有教科书的学校,他们强调教育的个性化,多样性,协作性,以及对于工作期望(甚至是成年人级别的期望值)。这些特色对他们的K-12学生产生了深远影响。

“高峰公立学校”拥有先进的软硬件,在社会及情感学习的框架内为其学生开发高度个性化的学习计划。 在高科技的帮助下,学校能够辨别出学生的学习在什么时候会落后,学生什么时候会需要老师的帮助,应该如何(以及何时)寻求更多的高质量教育信息。 很明显,这种技能与21世纪的工作需求联系日益紧密。

虽然“后真相时代”已经到来,教育领域的创新却为我们留下了一些希望的空间。我们将一齐目睹教育的未来:新时代的学生是否能够厘清定义了我们一代人的“信息海洋”,创造出新的工作范式,并将人文社会重新放到未来几十年发展的中心。

作者:
Mark Esposito, 剑桥大学商法学院研究员。
以上内容仅代表作者个人观点。
原文来源:世界经济论坛
翻译:达沃斯博客翻译小组·陈达铿。

 

3 ways to unleash your creativity

Formula One - F1 - Malaysia Grand Prix - Sepang, Malaysia- 29/9/16. Crew members push the car of Mercedes' Lewis Hamilton of Britain for a change of tyres.

The Formula 1 season will begin later this month, pitting the most talented drivers in the most finely honed machines against one another.

The image of a car designer sitting at a computer, working on a complex 3D visualization, is consistent with our perception of a ‘creative person’, but you may not immediately think about the act of driving a Formula 1 car as a creative process.

In fact, drivers are continuously finding inspired ways to take full advantage of every opportunity provided by their car, the conditions and their competitors. The world of Formula 1 represents a fascinating laboratory for exploring human creativity through drivers and their teams.

We can think about human creativity in the context of four components:

Components of creativity

The creative person

I was speaking to a colleague recently about the Finnish Formula 1 driver Kimi Räikkönen. We were reflecting on reports of the 2007 World Champion’s exceptional ability to ‘conceptualise three-dimensional space.’ Theoretically, if a driver can simulate a race circuit in their brain in ‘higher-definition’ than another driver, they can imagine more possible scenarios, and take advantage of them.

Kimi has demonstrated a creative approach to his driving from a young age. There is a legendary story from his days racing karts as a youngster. One race weekend in Monaco, Kimi’s kart was knocked over the barrier in a collision. The kart ended up completely off the circuit. The barrier was much too high, and the kart much too heavy, to lift it back over. Undeterred, Kimi continued driving alongside the circuit, on the wrong side of the barrier, until he ran out of road. At this point, Kimi was able to lift the kart onto the track. Kimi jumped back into his kart and worked his way through the pack, eventually finishing third.

Creativity in knowledge work

Creativity is vital in racing, for teams and for drivers, and it’s becoming increasingly important in the context of knowledge work.

Where the goal of work was once to extract the maximum amount of physical energy from a worker, and transform it into a tangible product, most knowledge work completely disrupts this equation. Knowledge work organisations transform mental energy into ideas and insights – something that will become even more critical as automation replaces many repeatable, process-based tasks.

Last year, the World Economic Forum’s ‘Future of Jobs’ report identified complex problem solving, critical thinking and creativity as the top three skills required to thrive in the 4th industrial revolution. Both complex problem solving and critical thinking require imagination, innovation and the ability to perceive multiple perspectives. Arguably, this makes creativity the foundation for the ‘podium of future skills’.

Efficient, productivity-orientated tasks are easy to reproduce by another human, or even a machine. Creativity is rare. Creativity is the antidote to the poison of efficiency over effectiveness. It’s the solution to sending endless e-mails and making meaningless presentations, because it allows us to perceive the new opportunities that are unfolding in front of us. While the specific factors that provide the optimal circumstances for creativity are debated, a brute force approach, based on clocking the hours, is not amongst them.

All humans have the capacity to be creative

All humans have the capacity to be creative and many of us could unlock more of our creative potential with the right process and conditions. I have heard many people label themselves as “not very creative” but creativity can be expressed in many different ways. For example, creativity may manifest itself as we think of solutions to challenging situations at work, or resolve conflicts, rather than being defined as a tangible creative output.

Previously, it’s been assumed that creativity declines with age. However, in domains that draw on knowledge and expertise, such as writing, philosophy and medicine, research suggests that creative achievement can peak in the early 40s, and declines at a relatively slow rate.

The creative process

Contrary to popular belief, providing someone with a blank slate does not appear to optimise the creative process. Unbounded choice and opportunity can quickly overwhelm the limited resources of attention, executive function and working memory.

We crave new information and we are rewarded for searching out novelty. In the digital age we have access to a fire hose of content to titillate the reward centres of our brain, but if we don’t have rules and boundaries in place, we can easily become distracted and create little real value.

Creativity thrives when there is some pressure and limitation, but not too much. We could plot the creative process as an inverted-U.

A hospitable environment for innovation

Too much time pressure impairs creative cognitive processing, but some pressure can fuel our creativity. Eliminating pressure entirely can suffocate the creative process and create an inhospitable environment for innovation.

Our response to pressure is individual; some people thrive when their backs are against the wall; others prefer a more relaxed approach. For certain individuals, a prize can drive them to produce their most innovative work; others are more motivated by intrinsic rewards. For most of us, it is a combination of the two.

Conditions for creativity

Creativity thrives in three conditions:

1. When we apply and combine old ideas in new ways.

Boundaries force us to look deeper within ourselves, to sift through our experiences for something that could be useful and pool our cognitive resources. Boundaries create the conditions that encourage us to combine what we already know, as well as the new ideas we can come up with.

2. When we feel enough pressure and incentive to encourage flexible thinking.

If we don’t have any pressure or incentive, we can talk forever without actually creating anything. When a clock is ticking, when a reward is waiting and we need to find an answer, our minds are more open to new ways of looking at a problem and we become more cognitively flexible.

3. When we don’t get too comfortable.

When we’ve finally developed an idea that we’re proud of, it’s easy to feel self-satisfied in the afterglow of creative breakthrough. This is one of the greatest risks in the creative process because we can easily become attached to an idea and miss further opportunities for improvement. One way to avoid this state is to regularly move boundaries and change rules (as is the case in Formula 1). This disruption creates a ‘shelf-life’ for your solutions and forces fresh rounds of innovation and creativity.

The creative situation

The development of a Formula 1 car is a good example of what can happen if you provide boundaries and creative conditions for knowledge workers. Team structures combine a breadth and depth of experience that promote the combining of old ideas in new ways. The World Championship competition provides pressure and incentives. Rule changes on an annual basis prevent anyone from becoming too satisfied with their ideas.

A Formula 1 car has thousands of separate elements that must fit together perfectly. A race season could see 30,000 design changes being made to the car, 1,000 per week, as components are tweaked and improved to maximise performance.

The development of a Formula 1 car also illustrates one of the myths of the10,000 hours rule. Achieving excellence is not the result of countless cycles of mechanical repetition. It works more like a neural network, processes are repeated, but parameters are deliberately adjusted after each cycle of learning, to get closer to the desired result.

Default mode and creativity

Crafting a ‘creative situation’ isn’t just about setting up boundaries for work; it can also involve allocating space for creative reflection. Our brains have a distinct network of interacting brain regions that become active in periods of wakeful rest, such as when we daydream or let our minds wander. This default mode network (DMN) activates whenever we are not involved in a task. Consequently, it’s sometimes described as a ‘task-negative’ state.

Entering ‘default mode’ has strong associations with creative and divergent thinking, comprehension, remembering the past and planning for the future. Some evidence has also observed a positive correlation between creative performance, across all measures of creativity, and the physical volume of the grey matter that makes up the default mode network.

The creative product

The technical story of Formula 1 describes the importance of quality over quantity and the triumph of creative solutions over brute force. In the 1906 Grand Prix, Mercedes fielded a car with a Maybach designed 11 litre engine. Its beastly engineering produced a mere 78kW of power. 110 years later, Mercedes is still competing and winning Grand Prix. In the 2016 Formula 1 season, Mercedes’ F1 W07 Hybrid cars featured a power unit that produced nearly 10 times the power of the Maybach engine, with 1/7th of the capacity of its ancestor. Brains have replaced brawn with precision, sophistication and consistent creativity.

It is interesting to note that some of the most significant developments in engine design have taken place in the previous four years. Endless cycles of development, testing and refinement, with a hefty dose of ingenuity, mean that today’s Mercedes PU106C power unit delivers at least 47% efficiency, versus 29% in 2013 and around 20% in 1906. These innovations have been instrumentals to the Mercedes’ AMG F1 teams’ three consecutive Constructor’s Championship victories.

There have been greater improvements in the efficiency of internal combustion engines in the last four years than in the last century. When you provide boundaries, resources, and a clear objective, then release people to do their best work, great things are possible.

Three questions to consider

1. Have you considered what level of pressure facilitates your most creative moments?
2. How can you engineer your environment to construct a more hospitable environment for creativity?
3. When did you last enjoy a ‘task-negative’ state and allocate some time for creative reflection?

Author:James Hewitt

Source:https://www.weforum.org